Do you think about something when you create a new database? Likely most of you would say no, since we all use default parameters, though they are far from being optimal. However, there is a bunch of disc settings, and they really help to increase system reliability and performance.
We won’t speak of the importance of the NTFS file system for data reliability, though this file system allows MS SQL Server to use the disk in the most effective way.
If you are short of resources and something starts working slow, the first thing that comes to mind is upgrading. But upgrading is not required in every case. You can get away with tuning, though it should be done not when the server starts running slow, but at the stage of design and installation.
Optimization is a complex process and is often related not only to a certain program (in our case, to a certain database) but also to OS and hardware. Though we will mostly speak about databases, we cannot ignore the outward things.
SQL Server stores, reads and writes data by blocks 8 KB each. These blocks are called pages. A database can store 128 pages per megabyte (1 megabyte or 1048576 bytes divided by 8 kilobytes or 8192 bytes). All pages are stored in an extent. An extent is last 8 sequential pages or 64 KB. Thus, 1 megabyte stores 16 extents.
Pages and extents are the basis of the SQL Server physical database structure. MS SQL Server uses various page types, some of them track allocated space, some contain user data and indexes. Pages that track the allocated space contain the densely compressed data. It allows MS SQL Server to effectively store them in memory for easy reading.
SQL Server uses two kinds of extents:
- Extents that store pages from two to many objects are called mixed extents. Each table begins as a mixed extent. You use mixed extent mainly for the pages that store space and contain small objects.
- Extents that have all 8 pages allocated to one object are called uniform extents. They are used when a table or index requires more than 64 KB.
The first extent for each file is a uniform one and contains pages of the file header, the next extents contain 3 allocated pages each. The server allocates these mixed extents when you create a basic data file and uses these pages for its internal tasks. The file header page contains file attributes, such as the name of the database stored in the file, filegroup, minimum size, increment size. This is the first page of each file (page 0).
Page Free Space (PFS) in an allocated page that contains information about free space available in the file. This information is stored on page 1. Each such page can extend to 8000 contiguous pages, which is approximately 64 Mb of data.
The transaction log collects all the information about the changes taking place on the server to restore a database at the moment of system error and to ensure data integrity.
Note that all numbers are multiples of 8 or 16. This is because the hard disc controller reads data of this size more easily. The Data is read from the disk by pages, i.e. by 8 kilobytes, which is quite an optimal value.
It is only one advise we can give you for the disk space planning, follow the link https://goo.gl/L5aa7G and we will tell you about:
- page protection ( page-level data control)
- file growth
- data compression
- disk for readability method
- disk for performance method
- and how to use indexes.